A physicist at Indiana University played an important role in the history of the work of two scientists honored by today’s Nobel Prize in Physics.
The winners of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physics are David J. Thouless, Michael Kosterlitz and F. Duncan M. Haldane, who were recognized Oct. 4 for theoretical discoveries of topological phase transitions and topological phases of matter.
Topology is a branch of mathematics that describes objects with special geometric properties. Thouless and Kosterlitz’s ideas were first described in 1971 as a novel phase transition of topological objects called vortices under the name Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless Theory.
A professor of physics in the IU Bloomington College of Arts and Sciences’ Department of Physics, Jorge V. José led theoretical work in the late 1970s that helped spur wider scientific acceptance of BKT theory, which has since been used to advance mathematical methods to study unusual phases of matter such as those found in superconductors, superfluids and ultra-thin magnetic films.
More recently, in recognition for this role in the early history of the theory, José was selected to edit a 40th anniversary book on the subject whose first chapter is authored by Thouless and Kosterlitz.
Anyone who has ever spotted a familiar face at a party but been unable to place where or when they last met that person knows the difference between episodic memory and familiarity.
Familiarity is mere recognition. Episodic memory is the ability to recall a memory’s context — to remember where and when you saw that familiar face. It’s also the difference between sputtering your way through a reintroduction or smoothly referring back to details about the last time you talked to your acquaintance.
Although it’s easy to grasp the difference in these types of memory in ourselves, it’s not easy to know how animals see the world. Do their memories also take context into account?
A new study by Indiana University researchers that appears online today in the journal Current Biology suggests that rats exhibit much stronger episodic memory than previously thought. It is the first study to show that these animals can remember more than 30 events in context.
The lead author on the study is Danielle Panoz-Brown, a graduate student in the lab of Jonathon Crystal, a professor in the IU Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, who is also an author on the paper.
“Most work shows that rats, and other animals, remember one, two or perhaps three events,” Crystal said. “This new work shows that rats remember many events — over 30 — and are likely able to remember many more using episodic memory.”
He added that the existence of episodic memory in lower animals has implications for research on human diseases that affect memory, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s diseases, since the majority of research on the brain — and the drugs used to treat memory diseases and dementia — start out based on insights into how the brain works in rats.
So, if a pharmaceutical company creates an Alzheimer’s drug to target memory based on research into one type of memory — the part of the brain responsible for finding missing objects, for example — but doesn’t also have data on the type of memory that helps individuals remember the important people, places and things in their life, it runs the risk of producing a product that helps a person remember where they put the car keys, but not how they met their spouse.
IU part of $1 million grant from NSF to create country’s first big data “spoke” focused on neuroscience
“The field of neuroscience is transforming,” wrote IU neuroscientist Franco Pestilli in a commentary published last year in the journal Nature Scientific Data. “Brain data from people and institutions around the world are being openly shared — moving from office desks and personal storage devices to institutionally supported cloud systems and public repositories.”
This process of openly sharing brain data — a part of the larger movement toward “open science” — is ushering in the era of “big data neuroscience.”
And now, as part of the team named recipient on a $1 million grant, IU will play a role on the forefront of this era by contributing to the establishment of the Neuroscience Spoke in the Midwest Big Data Hub. The principal investigator on the award is Pestilli, an assistant professor in the IU Bloomington College of Arts and Sciences’ Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences.
The award — a part of a major new initiative from the National Science Foundation and White House to “create a national ecosystem for Big Data and Data Science” — is a symbol of IU’s progression toward leadership in the field of both neuroscience and big data science. It is also part of $11 million in federal grants announced today to advance research and create infrastructure designed to ensure data acquired by publicly funded basic research is effectively shared and used.
“This award will help put IU on the map as a leader in the big data neuroscience,” Pestilli said. “We will contribute to moving neuroscience research beyond a cottage industry model, where independent labs generate data that remains unshared, by establishing a regional and national network of professionals and scientists who are proficient in data science and who possess the assets necessary to share data, software and computing resources that contribute to the impact of the scientific enterprise and the reproducibility of results.”
Pestilli’s co-investigators on the Neuroscience Spoke are Olaf Sporns, IU Distinguished Professor in Psychological and Brain Sciences, and Andrew Saykin, Raymond C. Beeler Professor of Radiology and Imaging Sciences at the IU School of Medicine.
The term “spoke” refers to IU’s position as part of the Midwest Big Data Hub, one of four regional “hubs” across the country funded under the NSF’s Big Data Hub program. The award makes IU part of the only spoke in the United States focused on neuroscience.
A committed team of graduate students from across the sciences at IU are banding together to provide a glimpse inside the world of Bloomington’s research labs through a new effort that seeks inform, entertain and spark conversations about science.
“ScIU: Conversations in Science,” which officially launches Aug. 22, is a new blog that seeks to foster discussion and awareness about science across the university and the community.
“We’re taking the time to do this because we love the discovery, the questions and the excitement of science – of trying to work and understand, and to build upon the knowledge of those who came before us,” said Briana K. Whitaker, a graduate student in the IU College of Arts and Sciences’ Department of Biology and a member of the blog’s editorial team. “With ScIU, we’re hoping to foster conversations between scientists and non-scientists and to start a dialogue about IU science that helps connect different people on and around campus.”
The graduate student editors and writers at ScIU represent a wide swath of science departments at IU Bloomington, all of whom have been collaborating on the project since last spring. Together, they’ve brainstormed topics, discussed the challenges of science writing and worked to raise excitement about the blog among their peers and research mentors.
The project was originally proposed and remains supported by the IU Bloomington College of Arts and Sciences’ Research Office and Office of Science Outreach, whose mission includes the promotion of diversity, awareness and accessibility of science to everyone.
“This project is all about public engagement with the sciences and focusing a two-way dialogue that not only communicates IU’s cutting-edge research to the public but is responsive to the public about what they need from science to make informed decisions in their lives,” said Jo Anne Tracy, director of the Office of Science Outreach and assistant dean for research in the College of Arts and Sciences.
A year and a day after delivering the first results from a multi-million-dollar detector built to shed light on the nature of neutrinos, IU physicist Mark Messier announced the project had produced new evidence about the nature of the “third mass state” of these mysterious subatomic particles.
The results were presented at the 2016 International Conference of High-Energy Physics in Chicago.
“Neutrinos are always surprising us,” said Messier, who is co-spokesperson for the NOvA experiment, the project that generated the results. “This result is a fresh look into one of the major unknowns in neutrino physics.”
A $278 million international collaboration of nearly 230 scientists and engineers from 41 institutions across the globe, the NOvA experiment is headquartered at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory
Neutrinos have previously been detected in three types, called flavors – muon, tau and electron. They also exist in three mass states, but those states don’t necessarily correspond directly to the three flavors.
The results of the experiment announced Aug. 8 suggest that one of the three neutrino mass states might not include equal parts of muon and tau flavor, as previously thought. Scientists refer to this as “non-maximal mixing,” and NOvA’s result is the first hint that this may be the case for the third mass state.
“In physics, symmetries are often important clues about what’s going on behind the scenes,” Messier said. “In this case we’ve seen a symmetry break, and exactly how and in which direction can tell us more about how neutrinos relate to each other and the other fundamental particles.”
“Bloomington loves Wally.”
So read a handmade sign tacked to the window of IU’s Jordan Hall Greenhouse on East Third Street, where a giant, odoriferous corpse flower named after a former IU staffer recently grew to a height of 6 feet 3 inches.
Scientifically named Amorphophallus titanum, or a titan arum, the enormous bloom unfurled the evening of Friday, July 29, revealing a deep crimson interior for about 36 hours, after which the plant’s leaves drew closed and the spadix — a large stem-like structure — sagged like a balloon after a party.
But during the short period from Friday evening to Sunday morning, Wally drew about 5,000 visitors to the greenhouse, including IU President Michael A. McRobbie. At the height of the bloom, the wait to visit the plant climbed over 90 minutes, with a line snaking through the greenhouse and into the main academic building.
“It’s a pretty impressive number when you add in the people who came on Friday afternoon and the people on Sunday to the crazy crowds on Saturday,” said Jean-François Gout, a research associate in the IU Bloomington Department of Biology, who produced a time-lapse video of the bloom (see below). “I myself saw the line extend to the end of the hallway in Jordan Hall.”
The majority of visitors hailed from Bloomington, but some arrived from farther afield. IU gardener John Leichter reported meeting several “flower groupies” who said they had traveled from New York City, where they recently saw another corpse flower bloom. The Herald-Times also reported visitors from Ohio and Oklahoma.
Many others simply peered through greenhouse windows from the sidewalk, or tuned into the live-stream. IU Collaborative Technologies estimates the live-stream player page was loaded 115,585 times during the bloom, with views reported from 96 different countries.
The size of the corpse flower attracted onlookers; so did the odor: a fetid smell produced by a cluster of small flowers — or “unbranched inflorescence” — at the base of the spadix to attract insect pollinators who normally feed on dead animals.
One visitor to the greenhouse described the smell on Twitter as “between a litterbox and the New York City subway.” The Department of Biology’s Facebook page said the scent was detectable outside the greenhouse on Friday night.
If houseplants, like houseguests, start to stink after three days, then an extremely rare plant that hasn’t bloomed in nine years at IU’s Jordan Hall Greenhouse is due to create a stench for the ages.
One of the world’s largest species of flower, the Amorphophallus titanum or titan arum, is expected to put forth its first bloom any day now. Known as the “corpse flower” for its overpoweringly foul odor, the bloom of this plant is an extremely rare sight.
As of July 19, the plant’s stem had reached a height of 3 feet, with several more feet expected. Interested individuals can follow the flower’s progress in real time via a live webstream, or visit the IU Bloomington Department of Biology’s Facebook page and a special Web page for updates on the expected bloom date.
A native to western Sumatra, the corpse flower takes eight to 20 years to bloom for the first time. After that, the flower appears every three years, and each bloom lasts only 24 to 36 hours. This is the first bloom of IU’s flower, and only five corpse flower blooms have been publicly recorded worldwide in the past year.
“With all of its size and fragrance, the flowering of this plant is not to be missed,” said paleobotanist David Dilcher, professor emeritus in the IU Bloomington College of Arts and Sciences’ Department of Biology and Department of Geology. “Although it’s related to the calla lily, a common sight in gardens across Indiana, the titan arum is tropical, with an enormous flower that is deep red in color and smells like rotten meat. The bloom of this plant is a spectacular sight rarely seen outside of major botanical gardens.”
The flower will be open for public viewing from 7:30 a.m. to 3:45 p.m. Monday to Friday and 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. Saturday and Sunday at IU’s Jordan Hall Greenhouse, at the corner of Third Street and South Hawthorne Drive in Bloomington, Ind. Parking is available at the Atwater Garage on Faculty Drive, between Third Street and Atwater Avenue.
High school students get crash course in science with latest addition to Biology Department’s summer research programs
Post by Lauren Bryant, associate director for research development communications, Office of the Vice Provost for Research:
When Mary Ann Tellas was a freshman at Indiana University Bloomington, she had the good fortune to encounter the late Jim Holland, a professor of biology at IU Bloomington known for his tireless recruiting and mentoring of students, particularly students underrepresented on campus.
“His biology course was packed with students, and I could see why. His teaching inspired students. He got me to really enjoy biology,” says Tellas, who went on to earn a degree in biology and teach high school biology in the Indianapolis area.
“Years later, Dr. Holland sought me out to work with a program he developed to address the racial disparities that exist in STEM,” Tellas adds. “I never knew how he found me, but I was honored to be a part of the initiative.”
Tellas now co-directs the program founded by Holland and has developed two additional related programs with Armin Moczek, professor of biology at IU Bloomington. The three STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) programs for underrepresented students are offered through the Department of Biology at IU Bloomington.
The first two programs are the Jim Holland Summer Enrichment Program, enabling eighth- to 10th-grade students to spend a week on campus, and the Jim Holland Summer Science Research Program, during which a subset of first-year students from the summer enrichment program return to campus to spend a week conducting research with an IU Bloomington faculty member.
The newest of the programs is the Jim Holland Research Initiative in STEM Education, or RISE, a two-week summer program that just finished its inaugural year this summer at IU Bloomington.
The building blocks that make up the elements on the periodic table are straightforward. Atoms are composed of protons, neutrons and electrons.
But two of those particles – neutrons and protons – haven’t been considered elementary particles since the 1960s. They’re hadrons, composed of three quarks: subatomic particles that come in six “flavors,” up, down, top, bottom, charm and strange. There are also anti-quarks, which have similar properties but possess equal and opposite charges.
Quark combinations include baryons, which contain three quarks, and mesons, which contain a single quark and an anti-quark. More recently four- and five-quark particles have been detected. This ever-growing menagerie of quark types and combinations is sometimes referred to by physicists as the “particle zoo.”
In the June 23 issue of the journal Nature, Matthew Shepherd, associate professor, and Ryan Mitchell, associate scientist, of the IU Bloomington College of Arts and Sciences’ Department of Physics, along with Jozef Dudek of Old Dominion University, attempt to wrangle this unruly group together in a review paper that explores the current state of knowledge about these fundamental particles, as well as what physicists know about forces that guide their existence and formation, described in part by the theory of quantum chromodynamics.
The colleagues were invited to write the piece after Shepherd delivered a talk on exotic mesons at the 12th Conference on the Intersections of Particle and Nuclear Physics in May 2015.
In the paper, he and the other authors observe that physicists’ knowledge of the behavior and structure of hadrons is currently limited, in part, by the lack of any simple relationship between the quarks described by quantum chromodynamics and the properties of hadrons detected experimentally.
Research by an international team of environmental scientists from the United Kingdom, Belgium and United States, including Indiana University, has found that plants that associate with one type of symbiotic fungi grow bigger in response to high levels of carbon dioxide, or CO2, in the atmosphere, but plants that associate with the other major type of symbiotic fungi do not.
The study, which appears online today in the journal Science, calls into question whether the “greening of the Earth” that results from carbon dioxide stimulation of plant growth — often called the “CO2 fertilization effect” — will persist as fossil fuel emissions continue to rise globally.
“Pumping extra carbon dioxide into a greenhouse is a common tactic to stimulate plant growth, but nature is much more complex than a greenhouse,” said Richard Phillips, associate professor in the IU College of Arts and Sciences’ Department of Biology, who is a co-author on the study. “So, there is great debate about whether pumping carbon dioxide into the atmosphere through fossil fuel combustion stimulates plant growth in nature, where soil nutrient levels are typically much lower than in a greenhouse.”
Fungi that form symbiotic relationships with plants are called mycorrhizal fungi. Over 90 percent of all plant life on Earth associates with mycorrhizal fungi, which provide plants with soil nutrients in exchange for plant carbohydrates.
“While researchers have long known that mycorrhizal fungi play an essential role in the growth and health of plants, their role in helping ecosystems store carbon has never been investigated on such a broad scale — until now,” said second-year PhD student César Terrer of Imperial College London, who is first author on the paper. “Our analysis is the first to demonstrate that only plants that associate with a certain type of fungal partner – one that helps them acquire nitrogen from soil – are likely to grow bigger as carbon dioxide levels rise.”
Other authors are on the study are Colin Prentice of Imperial College London; Sara Vicca of the University of Antwerp, Belgium; and Bruce A. Hungate of the Northern Arizona University.
The research team examined 83 experimental studies of plant responses to CO2 levels equivalent to those expected by the year 2050, assuming an increase of about 2 percent each year globally.