Seventy-five years ago this Friday, German government officials met at a lakeside villa in Berlin’s Wannsee district to talk about implementing the “final solution,” Nazi Germany’s plan to kill the 11 million Jews in Europe.
Mark Roseman, director of the Borns Jewish Studies Program at IU Bloomington and Pat M. Glazer Professor of Jewish Studies and professor of history, wrote the definitive book on this event, “The Wannsee Conference and the Final Solution: A Reconsideration,” published in 2003. This week, he is traveling to Germany for meetings marking the anniversary.
Roseman also authored a chapter in a new book, the German version of which will launch Sunday. The book, “The Participants: The Men of the Wannsee Conference,” looks at the 16 men who took part and the roles they played. An English version will come out this summer.
Historians didn’t learn about the conference until 1947, when a surviving copy of its minutes was discovered by a Nuremberg prosecutor in files seized from German government offices. The conference attained an almost mythic status as the point at which Germany embarked on genocide.
Roseman said the truth is more complicated, but the record of the conference provides important insight into the implementation of German policies.
“Whatever else it is,” he said, “it’s a very striking record of an important moment in the evolution of Nazism and the Holocaust.”
The meeting was organized and chaired by Reinhard Heydrich, a top German security official, and included officials from government ministries responsible for the treatment of Jews inside and outside of Germany. Adolf Eichmann, whose trial in 1961 and execution in 1962 increased attention to the Holocaust in the post-war generation, made arrangements and prepared the minutes.
Students and faculty in the Program in Social Foundations of Education at IU’s School of Education were planning a spring 2017 symposium that would highlight their field and make the case for its relevance to teacher education.
“And then the election happened,” said Caitlin Howlett, a doctoral student in philosophy of education.
The election of Donald Trump as president and his selection of Michigan school-choice advocate Betsy DeVos to be secretary of education added a sense of urgency for those planning the initiative. Almost overnight, their vision expanded to include a semester-long series that will examine education policy and issues related to children, youth and social justice.
The series is titled “What Is Public Education and Why Does It Matter?” It kicks off Wednesday with a teach-in and discussion on “Federal Education Under the New Regime.” The series is hosted by the Program in Social Foundations of Education with the School of Education.
Actually there will two teach-ins and discussions Wednesday: one at noon in the School of Education Atrium and the other at 7 p.m. in the Indiana Memorial Union Oak Room. The idea is to engage IU education students in the daytime event and reach out to the broader community in the evening.
A second set of teach-ins and discussions, this time on state education policy in Indiana, will take place Feb. 16 — at noon in the School of Education Atrium and at 7 p.m. at the Monroe County Public Library. The discussions will examine issues such as education funding, policymaking, legislation and the role of charter schools, private school vouchers and home-schooling.
A new Program on Governance of the Internet and Cybersecurity at Indiana University’s Ostrom Workshop is launching this semester with a range of activities, including a speaker series and an academic conference featuring invited papers and talks.
The program will build a network of scholars at IU and around the world to address timely questions regarding the security of cyber networks and effective governance of the internet, said Scott Shackelford, associate professor in the Kelley School of Business and director of the program.
The interdisciplinary program will organize presentations integrated into the weekly symposia series at the Ostrom Workshop. It will bring together experts from computing, law, business, economics, ethics, public policy, media, education, psychology, political science, international relations and other fields.
The academic conference, the inaugural Ostrom Workshop Colloquium on Cybersecurity and Internet Governance, will take place April 27-29 at the workshop, 513 N. Park Ave.
Shackelford said it makes sense to house such a center at the Ostrom Workshop because of the groundbreaking work conducted by the workshop’s founders, Vincent Ostrom and Elinor Ostrom, on questions of governance, institutions and public economics.
“The Ostrom Workshop is a great place to do this, because they have a long history of pushing the boundaries on governance research,” he said. “We’re trying to use some of the same theories and concepts that were developed by the Ostroms and their colleagues and apply them to internet governance and cybersecurity.”
The program gets underway as cybersecurity and the internet have gained urgent attention, from concerns about Russian hacking of U.S. campaign emails to the proliferation of fake or unreliable news. Issues of net neutrality and access to online information also create challenges for policymakers.
In addition to the Program on Governance of the Internet and Cybersecurity, the Ostrom Workshop recently added a Program on Governance of Natural Resources and is developing a Program on Political, Economic and Legal Institutions and Organizations.
Indiana University’s Elinor Ostrom received the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in December 2009, becoming the first — and still the only — woman to receive the award.
Seven years later, there are nearly constant reminders of her influence, including academic studies that build on her theories, symposia that celebrate her work and policy analyses that credit her thinking.
“Professor Ostrom had a profound impact on development studies through her work on public choice, institutionalism and the commons,” IU President Michael A. McRobbie said this month in Beijing at the “Ostrom Symposium on the Study of the Commons, Governance and Collective Decision.” “Her work had — and continues to have — a major influence on scholars from around the world.”
Elinor “Lin” Ostrom and her husband, Vincent Ostrom, established the Ostrom Workshop at IU Bloomington in 1973 and mentored generations of scholars who study institutional governance, natural resource management and other topics. Both Ostroms died in June 2012.
She was a Distinguished Professor of Political Science in the College of Arts and Sciences and a professor in the School of Public and Environmental Affairs, and both held the position of Arthur F. Bentley Professor of Political Science. She received the 2009 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, also known as the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, for her work on the economic governance.
The Ostrom Symposium in Beijing, organized by the university’s Research Center for Chinese Politics and Business and held at the IU China Gateway, highlighted the extraordinary influence the Ostroms had and continue to have among a group of Chinese scholars.
The Center for Postsecondary Research in the Indiana University School of Education will help lead a five-year study aimed at strengthening undergraduate research and creating cohesive, research-based curricula for college-level biology, chemistry, physics and psychology.
The project is funded with a $1.7 million grant from the National Science Foundation to the Council on Undergraduate Research, a Washington, D.C.-based organization.
The IU center will work with 12 colleges and universities and 24 academic departments on the project. The institutions and departments are being identified.
“We know that undergraduate research matters, but we don’t fully understand what goes on in undergraduate research initiatives,” said Jillian Kinzie, associate director of the Center for Postsecondary Research and a co-principal investigator for the grant. “This project will allow us to look at them in more depth.”
The project, “Integrating and Scaffolding Research into Undergraduate STEM Curricula: Probing Faculty, Student, Disciplinary and Institutional Pathways to Transformational Change,” aims to produce a better understanding of how students benefit from undergraduate research and to make research opportunities more widely available to students.
The Center on Postsecondary Research at IU Bloomington is known for producing the National Survey of Student Engagement and several related studies that examine college students’ participation in high-impact practices known to promote learning. Working with a faculty member on research is one high-impact practice.
“Historians should look back at what might have happened — but didn’t — thanks to Nunn-Lugar. The disintegration and discrediting of the power and ideology that commanded half the world for half a century passed peacefully, like evening into night, despite the fact that the Soviet empire’s writ ran over enough destructive power to end civilization as we know it. This is a major historic achievement for humankind, and historians not only decades but centuries from now will note the disaster that might have been — but which was averted through Nunn-Lugar.”
— Current Secretary of Defense Ash Carter, writing in 2005
Most Americans celebrated the breakup of the Soviet Union in late 1991, but Sens. Richard Lugar and Sam Nunn understood the rapid changes were producing danger as well as opportunity.
Thousands of nuclear weapons were spread across Russia as well as the former Soviet republics of Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan. With the collapse of central authority, how would they be controlled?
The answer came with the Nunn-Lugar Cooperative Threat Reduction Program, an innovative program in which, for over 20 years, the United States provided funding and expertise to dismantle nuclear weapons and secure dangerous materials in the former Soviet Union.
“It’s been estimated that the program was responsible for getting rid of at least 7,600 nuclear warheads,” Lugar said this week. “And, of course, they were powerful enough that any one or two of them could wipe a city the size of Indianapolis off the map.”
On Friday, Indiana University will mark the 25th anniversary of the program with a symposium at the Global and International Studies Building at IU Bloomington. Sponsored by the School of Global and International Studies and the School of Public and Environmental Affairs, it will include a public panel discussion at 3:30 p.m. featuring Lugar, Sen. Joe Donnelly and Sen.-elect Todd Young.
“I’m so pleased that these two friends are going to be with me,” said Lugar, a Distinguished Scholar at the School of Global and International Studies. “They have great opportunities to offer leadership in the Senate.”
Lugar, who represented Indiana in the Senate from 1977 to 2013, traced the origins of the program to the mid-1980s, when President Ronald Reagan involved a bipartisan group of senators in discussions of possible arms control agreements with the Soviets.
Lugar, an Indiana Republican, and Sen. Sam Nunn, a Georgia Democrat, had a common interest in mitigating the risk of nuclear wars or accidents, and they became acquainted with Soviet officials who shared their concern. When the Soviet Union was breaking apart, those officials visited Washington and took part in a meeting in Nunn’s office.
“They said, ‘You folks don’t know what trouble you’re in,'” Lugar recalled.
Robinson, professor in the Department of Political Science in the College of Arts and Sciences, will join Christian Lammert of the Freie Universität Berlin for a discussion of “The United States After the Elections: What’s Next for the U.S. and the World.” Sudha David-Wilp of the German Marshall Fund will moderate.
The program, part of a speaker series on International Governance in a Multipolar Age sponsored by the IU Europe Gateway and Freie Universität Berlin, starts 12:30 p.m. Thursday Eastern Standard Time (6:30 p.m. Central European Time). The discussion of the election and its potential impact on international politics and policy will be live streamed.
Robinson recently completed a term as executive associate dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. Her research focuses on gender and inequality, including inequality in education, same-sex marriage policies cross-nationally and other topics. Her recent publications include the book chapter “In Search of Equality in School Finance Reform” and the article “Democracy, Discursive Frames and Same-Sex Unions.”
In another post-election discussion focused on Europe, IU political scientists Regina Smyth and William Bianco discussed the results via remote TV connection with staff at the U.S. consulate in St. Petersburg, Russia, on Nov. 9. Smyth is project director of the new Russian Studies Workshop at IU Bloomington.
IU President Michael A. McRobbie inaugurated the IU Europe Gateway in November 2015. Located in the Kreuzberg District of East Berlin, it is housed in the Global Institute of the Council on International Educational Exchange. Hannah Buxbaum, professor and John E. Schiller Chair in Legal Ethics in the IU Maurer School of Law, is the academic director. Andrea Adam Moore is its director.
The IU Europe Gateway is the university’s third facility for international faculty, student and alumni activities, following the launch of similar offices in New Delhi and Beijing.
Planning to stay home and cower under the bed on election night? Here’s a better idea: Join IU Bloomington students, faculty and staff to watch election returns at Franklin Hall.
The Franklin Hall commons will be “election central” on the evening of Nov. 8, with its 24-by-12-foot TV screen tuned to election coverage starting at 4 p.m. Three panels of faculty and graduate student experts will provide commentary and analysis.
The Media School and the Department of Political Science are hosting the event, which grew out of efforts by students to be engaged in the 2016 elections. Those efforts have proceeded under the umbrella of the All In Campus Democracy Challenge, which seeks to promote civic engagement and boost student voting.
Bernard Fraga, an assistant professor of political science and a member of the campus’s All In Campus Democracy Challenge task force, said undergraduates had been working with IU political scientist Marjorie Hershey to organize an election night watch party.
“The Media School was interested in doing a similar event with a more academic focus,” he said. “We kind of combined forces, and The Media School really took charge.”
Panel discussions will include:
- 5 p.m., a discussion of media coverage of the election with associate professor Julia Fox, assistant professor Jason Peifer and graduate student Edo Steinberg, all of The Media School, and Hershey from the political science department. Fraga will moderate.
- 6:15 p.m., international perspectives on the election with assistant professor Julien Mailland and doctoral students Diana Sokolova of The Media School and Argentina-based political analyst Sergio Berensztein. Elaine Monaghan, professor of practice in The Media School, will moderate.
- 7:20 p.m., ethics and norms of political journalism with Monaghan, Media School assistant professor Nick Browning and associate professor Mike Conway and undergraduate Sara Zaheer. Doctoral student Kyle Heatherly will moderate.
Election results should start appearing around 8 p.m., if previous presidential elections are a guide, Fraga said. Indiana’s polls are the first in the nation to close at 6 p.m. EST.
Politicians and organizations may claim credit, but real social change results from the determined work of ordinary people, immigrant rights activist Gaby Pacheco told a student audience at Indiana University Bloomington today.
“We need to put the communities who are being affected by the issues at the forefront,” she said. “They have a voice, and it’s powerful.”
Pacheco was a keynote speaker for “Moving the World Forward: Exploring a Future in Public Service,” a conference for diverse, high-achieving college students from around the U.S. The IU School of Public and Environmental Affairs hosted the conference, which was created by the Public Policy and International Affairs program in partnership with the Network of Schools of Public Policy, Affairs and Administration.
An undocumented immigrant who speaks openly about her status and experiences, Maria Gabriela “Gaby” Pacheco has been a leading advocate for immigrants who arrived as children. Her work was instrumental in the 2012 adoption of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals program, which provides opportunities for immigrants who arrived as children to stay in the U.S.
Her advocacy included working with politicians from both sides of the aisle, speaking up to powerful senators and refusing to be co-opted by the agendas of office-holders and organized groups. It took courage “but also just acting with my gut” to effect change, she said.
Historian Geoffrey Kabaservice examined the Republican Party for his 2012 book “Rule and Ruin” and concluded it was headed for disaster.
“What I saw was a party that had lost a lot of its moderate heritage,” he said. “It was moving away from seeing value in bipartisanship and compromise. And everything I more or less predicted has happened.”
The eventual result, he said, was this year’s “hostile takeover” of the party by presidential candidate Donald Trump and his supporters.
Kabaservice will be at Indiana University Bloomington this Friday to present a talk and take part in a panel discussion as part of the university’s Tocqueville Lecture Series.
From noon to 1:30 p.m., he will speak on “Trump and the Republican Party Crackup — A Moderate Historical Perspective.” From 4 to 5:30 p.m., he will take part in a discussion of “Is There a Role for Moderation in America’s Polarized Politics?” with IU faculty members Lee H. Hamilton and Leslie Lenkowsky. IU political scientist Edward Carmines will moderate.
The lecture and panel discussion will take place at the Ostrom Workshop, 513 N. Park Ave. Both are free and open to the public and will be streamed online. They were organized by the Tocqueville Program, which was founded at IU Bloomington in 2009.